Contents
  1. Fatawa-i-alamgiri
  2. Fatawa Alamgeeri in URDU
  3. Fatawa-e-Alamgiri - WikiVisually
  4. £79.95

Fatawa-e-Alamgiri (also known as Fatwa Alamgiriyya or Fatawa-i-Hindiyya) ( Arabic: الفتاوى Fatawa-i Alamgiri as the documented Islamic law book, became the foundation of legal system of India. Further, the English-speaking judges relied. Fatawa e Alamgiri (Fatawa e Hindiya) [Fiqh wa Usool-e-Fiqh]. Identifier FatawaAalamgeeriVolume2Urdu. Identifier-arkark://t5gb6t45c. Book Source: Digital Library of India Item rattribillvordo.cf: Alamgiri Mohd. Mohiuddin rattribillvordo.cfioned.

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Fatawa Alamgiri Book

کتاب: فتاوي عالمگیری اردو مترجم: مولانا سید امیر علی رحمة الله Fatawa alamgiri urdu book in pdf. This pdf book (FATAWA ALAMGEERI) is most Authentic book of fiqh Hanafi. Al -Fatawa al-Hindiyyah also known as Fatawa Alamgiri is a. This article examines the Fatawa Alamgiri, a compilation of authoritative Hanafi . He is also claimed to be the author of a book, al-Tafrid, in the Hanafi fiqh.

Within Islam the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran. Quranic verses enjoin Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgments, providing scriptural authority for hadith. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is few, hadiths give direction on everything from details of religious obligations, to the correct forms of salutations and the importance of benevolence to slaves, thus the "great bulk" of the rules of Sharia are derived from ahadith, rather than the Quran. Unlike the Quran, not all Muslims believe. Hadiths were not written down by Muhammad's followers after his death but several generations when they were collected and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature. Different collections of hadith would come to differentiate the different branches of the Islamic faith. A small minority of Muslims called. Because some ahadith include questionable and contradictory statements, the authentication of ahadith became a major field of study in Islam. In its classic form a hadith has two parts — the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report, the main text of the report. Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists into categories such as sahih, hasan or da'if. However, different groups and different scholars may classify a hadith differently. Among some scholars of Sunni Islam , the term hadith may include not only the supposed words, practices, etc.

All three sons intended to win the crown, Kam Bakhsh began minting coins in his name. Azam prepared to march to Agra and declare himself successor, but was defeated by Mu'azzam at the Battle of Jajau in June Azam and his son, Ali Tabar, were killed in the battle.

With his predecessors unable to make significant gains in Rajputana , after ascending the throne, Shah made plans to annexe cities of the region to the Mughal empire. In the religion of Islam it refers to punishments that under Islamic law are mandated and fixed by God; these punishments were applied in pre-modern Islam, their use in some modern states has been a source of controversy.

Traditional Islamic jurisprudence divides crimes into those against man; the former are seen to violate God's hudud or "boundaries", they are associated with punishments specified in the Quran and in some cases inferred from hadith.

The offenses incurring hudud punishments are zina, unfounded accusations of zina, drinking alcohol , highway robbery, some forms of theft. Jurists have differed as to whether apostasy from Islam and rebellion against a lawful Islamic ruler are hudud crimes.

Fatawa-i-alamgiri

Hudud punishments range from public lashing to publicly stoning to death, amputation of hands and crucifixion. Hudud crimes cannot be pardoned by the victim or by the state, the punishments must be carried out in public; these punishments were implemented in practice, because the evidentiary standards were impossibly high.

For example, meeting hudud requirements for zina and theft was impossible without a confession, which could be invalidated by a retraction. Based on a hadith, jurists stipulated that hudud punishments should be averted by the slightest doubts or ambiguities; the harsher hudud punishments were meant to deter and to convey the gravity of offenses against God, rather than to be carried out.

During the 19th century, sharia-based criminal laws were replaced by statutes inspired by European models nearly everywhere in the Islamic world, except some conservative regions such as the Arabian peninsula; the Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia.

Reinstatement of hudud punishments has had particular symbolic importance for these groups because of their Quranic origin, their advocates have disregarded the stringent traditional restrictions on their application.

In practice, in the countries where hudud have been incorporated into the legal code under Islamist pressure, they have been used sparingly or not at all, their application has varied depending on local political climate.

Their use has been a subject of debate. Hudud is not the only form of punishment under sharia. For offenses against man — the other type of crime in Sharia — that involve inflicting bodily harm Islamic law prescribes a retaliatory punishment analogous to the crime or monetary compensation. Criminals who escaped a hudud punishment could still receive a ta'zir sentence.

In practice, since early on in Islamic history, criminal cases were handled by ruler-administered courts or local police using procedures that were only loosely related to sharia. Hudud crimes are defined in the Sunnah ; the Qur'an describes several hudud crimes and in some cases sets out punishments.

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The hudud crime of theft is referred to in Quranic verse As to the thief, male or female, cut off his or her hands: a punishment by way of example, from Allah , for their crime: and Allah is Exalted in power; the crime of "robbery and civil disturbance against Islam" inside a Muslim state, according to some Muslim scholars, is referred to in Quranic verse The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land:, their disgrace in this world, a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter.

The crime of illicit consensual sex is referred to in several verses, including Quranic verse The woman and the man guilty of adultery or fornication - whip each of them with a hundred stripes. Let not compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by Allah, if ye believe in Allah and the Last Day: and let a party of the Believers witness their punishment; the crime of "accusation of illicit sex or rape against chaste women without four witnesses" and a hudud punishment is based on Quranic verses , , and , among others Quranic verse.

And those who accuse chaste women and do not bring four witnesses - flog them with eighty stripes and do not accept their witness thereafter. Indeed they themselves are impure; the crime of intoxication is referred to in Quranic verse , hudud punishment is described in hadiths : O ye who believe!

Intoxicants and gambling and arrows, are an abomination , - of Satan's handwork: eschew such, that ye may prosper; the sahih hadiths, a compilation of sayings and traditions of Muhammad as observed by his companions, are considered by Sunni Muslims to be the most trusted source of Islamic law after the Quran.

They extensively describe hudud punishments.

In some cases Islamic scholars have used hadiths to establish hudud punishments, which are not mentioned in the Quran. Thus, stoning as punishment for zina is based on hadiths that narrate episodes where Muhammad and his successors prescribed it; the tendency to use existence of a shubha to avoid hudud punishments is based on a hadith that states "avert hadd punishment in case of shubha". The offences subject to hudud punishment are: Some types of theft. Punished with amputation of a hand.

With a land area of 2,, km2, Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in the Middle East , the second-largest in the Arab world, the fifth-largest in Asia, the 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south, it is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, most of its terrain consists of arid desert and mountains.

As of October , the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. Saudi Arabia enjoys one of the world's youngest populations; the territory that now constitutes Saudi Arabia was the site of several ancient cultures and civilizations.

The prehistory of Saudi Arabia shows some of the earliest traces of human activity in the world. The world's second-largest religion, emerged in modern-day Saudi Arabia. In the early 7th century, the Islamic prophet Muhammad united the population of Arabia and created a single Islamic religious polity.

Following his death in , his followers expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory in a matter of decades. Arab dynasties originating from modern-day Saudi Arabia founded the Rashidun , Umayyad and Fatimid caliphates as well as numerous other dynasties in Asia and Europe ; the area of modern-day Saudi Arabia consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz and parts of Eastern Arabia and Southern Arabia.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in by Ibn Saud , he united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in with the capture of Riyadh , the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud. Saudi Arabia has since been a totalitarian absolute monarchy a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamist lines. The ultraconservative Wahhabi religious movement within Sunni Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture", with its global spread financed by the oil and gas trade.

Petroleum was discovered on 3 March and followed up by several other finds in the Eastern Province. Saudi Arabia has since become the world's second largest oil producer and the world's largest largest oil exporter, controlling the world's second largest oil reserves and the sixth largest gas reserves; the kingdom is categorized as a World Bank high-income economy with a high Human Development Index and is the only Arab country to be part of the G major economies.

The state has attracted criticism for a multitude of reasons including but not limited to: its archaic treatment of women, its excessive and extrajudicial use of capital punishment, state-sponsored discrimination against religious minorities and atheists , its role in the Yemeni Civil War , sponsorship of Islamic terrorists, its strict interpretation of Sharia Law.

An autocratic monarchy, the kingdom has the world's third-highest military expenditure and, according to SIPRI , was the world's second largest arms importer from to Saudi Arabia is considered a middle power. Its inclusion expresses the view. Al Saud is an Arabic name formed by adding the word Al, meaning "family of" or "House of", to the personal name of an ancestor.

In the case of the Al Saud, this is the father of the dynasty's 18th-century founder, Muhammad bin Saud. There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about , years ago, it is now believed that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about 75, years ago across the Bab-el-Mandeb connecting the Horn of Africa and Arabia.

Damascus, Beirut, Kuwait: Dar an-Nawadir, Structure of Politics Under Aurangzeb Kanishka Publishers Distributors. Feminism in Islam: Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic-language text. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

This page was last edited on 30 May , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Aurangzeb and various prominent Islamic scholars. Hourani quotes al-Kindi , "the father of Islamic philosophy", as follows: "We should not be ashamed to acknowledge truth from whatever source it comes to us if it is brought to us by former generations and foreign peoples. For him who seeks the truth there is nothing of higher value than truth itself. In general, the Islamic philosophers saw no contradiction between philosophy and the religion of Islam.

However, according to Hourani, al-Farabi wrote that philosophy in its pure form was reserved for an intellectual elite, that ordinary people should rely for guidance on the sharia; the distinction between a scholarly elite and the less educated masses "was to become a commonplace of Islamic thought".

As exemplified by the works of al-Razi , during times, philosophy "was carried on as a private activity by medical men, pursued with discretion, met with suspicion"; the founder of Islamic philosophical ethics is Ibn Miskawayh He combined Aristotelian and Islamic ethics, explicitly mentioning the Nicomachean Ethics and its interpretati Bahadur Shah I Bahadur Shah known as Muhammad Muazzam and Shah Alam was the seventh Mughal emperor of India , ruled from until his death in In his youth, he conspired to overthrow his father Aurangzeb , the sixth Mughal emperor, ascend to the throne a number of times.

Shah's plans were intercepted by the emperor.

Fatawa-e-Alamgiri - WikiVisually

In , he was imprisoned by Marathas for seven years. From to , he was governor of Akbarabad and Lahore. After Aurangzeb's death his eldest son by his chief consort, Muhammad Azam Shah , declared himself successor, however was shortly defeated in the Battle of Jajau and overthrown by Bahadur Shah.

During the reign of Bahadur Shah, the Rajput states of Jodhpur and Amber were annexed for a short time. Shah sparked an Islamic controversy in the khutba by inserting the declaration of Ali as wali , his reign was disturbed by several rebellions, the Sikhs under the leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur , Rajputs under Durgadas Rathore and fellow Mughal Kam Bakhsh.

During his grandfather's reign Muazzam was appointed vizer of Lahore from Shivaji raided the outskirts of Mughal Deccan's capital Aurangabad while the indolent Mu'azzam did little to prevent it. In , Mu'azzam organised an insurgency to overthrow Aurangzeb and proclaim himself the Mughal emperor; this plan may have been hatched at the instigation of the Marathas, Mu'azzam's own inclinations and sincerity are difficult to gauge.

Anyway, Aurangzeb learned about the plot and sent Mu'azzam's mother Begum Nawab Bai to dissuade Mu'azzam from rebellion. Nawab Bai brought Mu'azzam back to the Mughal court, where he spent the next several years under Aurangzeb's supervision. However, Mu'azzam revolted in on the pretext of protesting Aurangzeb's treatment of Rajput chiefs.

Once again, Aurangzeb followed his previous policy to dissuade Mu'azzam with gentleness and to place him under greater vigilance. For the next seven years, from to , Mu'azzam was a "grudgingly obedient son".

In , he was sent by Aurangzeb to the Deccan to crush a revolt raised by his step-brother Sultan Muhammad Akbar. According to the historian Munis Faruqui, Mu'azzam deliberately failed in his mission.

In , he was ordered by Aurangzeb to march to the Konkan region to prevent the still rebellious Akbar from fleeing the country, but again Mu'azzam's "half-hearted" mission failed to achieve the assigned goal; the emperor still persisted in entrusting his son with responsibilities, in , Aurangzeb ordered Mu'azzam to march against the sultanate of Golconda.

Within weeks, the emperor's spies intercepted treasonous messages exchanged between Mu'azzam and Abul Hasan , the ruler of Golconda. This was something. Aurangzeb imprisoned him. Mu'azzam's loyal servants were moved by his father into the imperial service, the remaining servants were sacked. Aurangzeb forbade Mu'azzam to cut his nails or hair for six months, gave orders depriving him of "good food or cold water. Around , Aurangzeb rehabilitated Mu'azzam and allowed him "to rebuild his household", rehiring some of his servants, dismissed.

Aurangzeb continued to spy on his son, appointing his men to Mu'azzam's household, sending informants to his harem and choosing his representatives at the imperial court. Mu'azzam and his sons were transferred from the Deccan to north India , were forbidden to lead military expeditions in that region for the rest of Aurangzeb's reign.

Although the commander imposed "heavy taxation" on the rajas, he thought it necessary to leave the Sikhs undisturbed in their fortified city of Anandpur and refused to wage war against them out of "genuine respect" for their religion. That year Mu'azzam was appointed governor of Akbarabad , in he was transferred to Lahore. After the death of Amin Khan he assumed that position in , holding it until his father's death in Without appointing a crown prince, Aurangzeb died in when Mu'azzam was governor of Kabul and his half-brothers were the governors of the Deccan and Gujarat respectively.

All three sons intended to win the crown, Kam Bakhsh began minting coins in his name. Azam prepared to march to Agra and declare himself successor, but was defeated by Mu'azzam at the Battle of Jajau in June Azam and his son, Ali Tabar, were killed in the battle.

With his predecessors unable to make significant gains in Rajputana , after ascending the throne, Shah made plans to annexe cities of the region to the Mughal empire.

In the religion of Islam it refers to punishments that under Islamic law are mandated and fixed by God; these punishments were applied in pre-modern Islam, their use in some modern states has been a source of controversy. Traditional Islamic jurisprudence divides crimes into those against man; the former are seen to violate God's hudud or "boundaries", they are associated with punishments specified in the Quran and in some cases inferred from hadith. The offenses incurring hudud punishments are zina, unfounded accusations of zina, drinking alcohol , highway robbery, some forms of theft.

Jurists have differed as to whether apostasy from Islam and rebellion against a lawful Islamic ruler are hudud crimes. Hudud punishments range from public lashing to publicly stoning to death, amputation of hands and crucifixion.

Hudud crimes cannot be pardoned by the victim or by the state, the punishments must be carried out in public; these punishments were implemented in practice, because the evidentiary standards were impossibly high. For example, meeting hudud requirements for zina and theft was impossible without a confession, which could be invalidated by a retraction. Based on a hadith, jurists stipulated that hudud punishments should be averted by the slightest doubts or ambiguities; the harsher hudud punishments were meant to deter and to convey the gravity of offenses against God, rather than to be carried out.

During the 19th century, sharia-based criminal laws were replaced by statutes inspired by European models nearly everywhere in the Islamic world, except some conservative regions such as the Arabian peninsula; the Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia.

£79.95

Reinstatement of hudud punishments has had particular symbolic importance for these groups because of their Quranic origin, their advocates have disregarded the stringent traditional restrictions on their application. In practice, in the countries where hudud have been incorporated into the legal code under Islamist pressure, they have been used sparingly or not at all, their application has varied depending on local political climate. Their use has been a subject of debate. Hudud is not the only form of punishment under sharia.

For offenses against man — the other type of crime in Sharia — that involve inflicting bodily harm Islamic law prescribes a retaliatory punishment analogous to the crime or monetary compensation.

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